North American Free Trade Agreement Criticism
Exports of real goods to Canada increased by 50% from 1993 to 2016, and imports of real goods increased by 41%. It appears that NAFTA has improved the U.S. trade position vis-à-vis Canada. In fact, both countries have had free trade agreements since 1988, but the trend continues — the U.S. trade deficit with Canada was even higher in 1987 than it was in 1993. While the United States enjoys a slight advantage in trade in services, exporting $30.8 billion in 2015 and importing $21.6 billion, its overall trade balance with the country is negative due to a gaping deficit of $58.8 billion in trade in goods in 2016. In comparison, trade with the United States and Mexico had a surplus of $1.7 billion in 1993 (in 1993, in U.S. dollars, the deficit was $36.1 billion in 2016). According to a 2012 study, NAFTA tariff trade in Canada increased by only a modest 11%, compared to a 41% increase in the United States. and 118 per cent for Mexico. :3 In addition, the United States and Mexico benefited more from the tariff reduction component, with increases in social assistance of 0.08% and 1.31%, respectively, with Canada recording a decrease of 0.06%.
:4 The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is a trade pact signed by the United States, Canada and Mexico that has facilitated the movement of goods and supplies by companies from these three countries across the borders of North America. The agreement entered into force on 1 January 1994 and essentially eliminated tariffs on most goods traded between the three countries. The overall impact of the agricultural agreement between Mexico and the United States is controversial. Mexico has not invested in the infrastructure needed for competition, such as efficient railways and highways. This has led to more difficult living conditions for the country`s poor. Mexico`s agricultural exports grew by 9.4% per year between 1994 and 2001, while imports grew by only 6.9% per year over the same period.  An October 2017 editorial in Toronto`s Globe and Mail asked if the U.S. wanted to renegotiate the deal or whether it planned to move away from it no matter what, noting that new U.S. Ambassador Kelly Knight Craft is married to the owner of Alliance Resource Partners, a large U.S. coal company.
Canada is implementing a carbon plan, and it is also about selling bomber aircraft. “The Americans introduced so many poison pills into the talks in Washington last week that they should have been charged with murder,” columnist John Ibbitson wrote.  Shortly after his election, U.S. President Donald Trump said he would begin renegotiating nafta terms to resolve the trade issues he had campaigned on. The leaders of Canada and Mexico have signaled their willingness to cooperate with the Trump administration.  Although Trump is vague about the exact terms he seeks in a renegotiated NAFTA, he has threatened to withdraw from it if negotiations fail.  The U.S. Chamber of Commerce attributed to NAFTA that U.S. trade in goods and services with Canada and Mexico increased from $337 billion in 1993 to $1.2 trillion in 2011, while the AFL-CIO blamed the agreement for sending 700,000 U.S. manufacturing jobs to Mexico during that time.  Instead, the number of Mexican immigrants more than doubled, again from 1990 to 2000, when it approached 9.2 million.
According to Pew, the river has reversed — at least temporarily. Between 2009 and 2014, 140,000 more Mexicans left the United States than they entered, likely due to the impact of the financial crisis. One of the reasons NAFTA did not cause the expected drop in immigration was the peso crisis from 1994 to 1995, which plunged the Mexican economy into recession. Another is that the reduction in Mexican tariffs on maize has not encouraged Mexican maize producers to grow other, more lucrative crops. This led them to abandon agriculture. A third is that the Mexican government has failed to keep its promises of infrastructure investment, largely limiting the pact`s impact on production in the north of the country. None of these other countries are not only members of NAFTA, none have a free trade agreement with the United States. When the United States enters into trade agreements with middle- and low-income countries, our negotiators tend to demand higher labour, environmental, and intellectual property standards than countries previously imposed. But critics of NAFTA say the U.S. did not push hard enough for strict protections for workers and the environment when negotiating the deal. Of course, these standards could change if the deal is renegotiated and adjusted in the coming years, but for now, NAFTA opponents say the deal has missed an opportunity to promote pro-worker and pro-environmental agendas. .