1905 Korea Japan Agreement
This treaty deprived Korea of its diplomatic sovereignty and effectively made Korea a protectorate of Imperial Japan.  The provisions of the treaty came into force on November 17, 1905, laying the foundation for the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1907 and the subsequent annexation of Korea in 1910.  In international law, not on whether there was also a threat to an individual or simply pressure on a state, to the point where people recognize or not that norms or regulations of customary international law that invalidate the conclusion of threatened treaties could exist at the time of 1905, arguments and positions were very separate. As we can see, through Article 1 of the applied Japan-Korea Protectorate Treaty, Korea has lost the means to lodge protests beyond the internal level of government. After refusing to sign the 1905 protectorate treaty, King Kojong issued a statement of denial. The king sent a special envoy, Ambassador Young-Chan Min, resident ambassador of the US Secretary of State to Washington. This Agreement shall remain in force fifteen years after its signature and other arrangements may be concluded by mutual agreement after the expiry of that period.  Although Japan was able to participate in Korean finance and diplomacy due to the conclusion of the first Japanese-Korean treaty in 1904 during the Russo-Japanese War, it decided to conclude this treaty in order to force the Korean Empire, which had lost Japan`s confidence, to take more reliable measures, since Japan was affected by Russia under the Treaty of Portsmouth (5. September 1905), the peace treaty of the Russo-Japanese War, and also because it became a problem that Gao Zong (King of Korea) had sent a secret agent to other countries to show his dissatisfaction with the first Japanese-Korean treaty.
There is also an affirmation of the position in which they think that in 1905 there were no norms or regulations in customary international law that could invalidate the conclusion of a treaty because of coercion against a State. Since the Treaty of Versailles of 1919, the violent settlement of international issues has been considered a problem under the normative influence of international law, and it was after the beginning of the Charter of the United Nations of 1945 that the threat to a State was prohibited — these are realities of the functional functioning of the norm of international law at that time. Harvard Law School later cited the Japan-Korean protectorate treaty as one of four classic examples of a forced treaty that compared the agreement to HIlter`s coercion of European countries. On August 29, 100 years ago, the Treaty on the Annexation of Korea to Japan was announced, a week after it was signed. It was not a contract between equal partners. The Korea-Japan Convention of 1905 had already made Korea a protectorate of Japan. Under the annexation treaty, the Korean emperor ceded sovereign power over his country “completely and forever” to the Japanese emperor. Thus, Korea became a colony of Japan. On November 9, 1905, Itō Hirobumi arrived in Hanseong and presented Gojong, the Emperor of Korea, with a letter from the Emperor of Japan asking him to sign the treaty. On the 15th. In November 1905, he ordered Japanese troops to encircle the Korean Imperial Palace and threatened the emperor to force him to accept the treaty.
The Treaty of Eulsa (Dai-niji Nikkan Kyoyaku [Second Japanese-Korean Treaty]) was an agreement concluded on November 17, 1905, after the end of the Russo-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire. This treaty allowed the Empire of Japan to deprive the Korean Empire of its diplomatic right, making Korea the protector state of Japan. Reference is also made to Isshi Hogo Joyaku (the Eulsa Protection Treaty) or Kankoku Hogo Joyaku (the Convention for the Protection of Korea). On November 17, 1905, Ito and Japanese Field Marshal Hasegawa Yoshimichi entered Jungmyeongjeon Hall, a Russian-designed building that was once part of Deoksu Palace, to persuade Gojong to agree, but he refused. Ito pressured the firm to sign the treaty with the implicit and later declared threat of bodily harm.  According to 한계옥 (Han-Gyeok), Korean Prime Minister Han Gyu-seol disagreed and shouted loudly. Ito ordered the guards to lock him in a room and said that if he continued to scream, they could kill him.  The Korean firm signs an agreement prepared by Ito in Jungmyeongjeon.
The agreement gave Imperial Japan full responsibility for Korea`s foreign affairs and placed all trade passing through Korean ports under Japanese imperial supervision. This treaty, as well as other treaties, have already been declared null and void in accordance with Article II of the 1965 Treaty on Fundamental Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea. Japan and Korea have different interpretations from this point of view. In Japan, it was considered invalid after the conclusion of the 1965 treaty. On the other hand, the Government of the Republic of Korea considered that the Treaty on the Japanese Annexation of Korea was invalid from the outset (it had not entered into force since the date of its conclusion). On the basis of these arguments, the Republic of Korea and the Democratic People`s Republic of Korea claim that the treaty was already invalid at the 1905 stage, the date of its conclusion, that is, it had not entered into force from the outset. This assumption is also accompanied by a power that insists that the treaty on the Japanese annexation of Korea was invalid. The Japan-Korea Treaty of 1905, also known as the Eulsa Treaty, unintended Eulsa Treaty or Japan-Korea Protectorate Treaty, was signed in 1905 between the Empire of Japan and the Korean Empire.
Negotiations were concluded on 17 November 1905.  The treaty deprives Korea of its diplomatic sovereignty and makes Korea a protectorate of Imperial Japan. It resulted from imperial Japan`s victory in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905.  Considering that the undersigned, duly authorized by their governments, have signed this Agreement and affixed their seals. The Japanese representative was Gonsuke HAYASHI, the envoy extraordinary; and Korean Representative Che-Soon PARK, Minister of Foreign Affairs. ARTICLE IV. The provisions of all existing treaties and agreements between Japan and Korea which are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement shall remain in force. At the conference of the academic project “Review of “the Annexation of Korea” in history and international law, held in 2001 at Harvard University in the United States (State of Massachusetts), British researchers and others insisted on its validity and legality, which did not allow opinions on disability and/or illegality to become generally acceptable. However, in Asian regions other than Korea and African territories, there is a growing movement to consider this type of treaty as “invalid and/or illegal”. On the right is a photo of Japanese generals and officials after the signing of Article III of the Japan-Korean Protectorate Treaty: “. Since Japan has paramount political, military and economic interests in Korea, the United Kingdom recognizes japan`s right to take such leadership, control and protective measures in Korea as it deems appropriate and necessary to protect and promote those interests, provided that such measures are not contrary to the principle of equal opportunity for trade and industry of all nations. The Russo-Japanese War began: on the night of February 8, 1904, the Japanese fleet commanded by Admiral Heihachiro Togo opened the Russo-Japanese War with a surprise attack on Russian ships at Port Arthur, severely damaging two battleships.